REVIVER is a rehabilitation device that allows the conditioning of the body's nervous and muscular systems in a single user friendly motion. Using gravity to stimulate areas of the body that may have become dormant due to age, injury or disability.

REVIVER has application for treating a wide range of neurological disorders such as Parkinson's Disease, Multiple Sclerosis, Cerebral Palsy and Stroke.

 

Over the past three years, at Isodynamics REVIVER Clinic in Sydney Australia, exceptional results have been achieved in multiple patients with a wide range of neurodegenerative impairments.

Which include:

  • Return of mental and physical faculties

  • Increased strength, balance and mobility 

  • Relief in pain and disability

  • Improved quality of life and wellbeing 

These benefits observed in many patients with different impairments are often well beyond those achieved by existing exercise therapies, with less effort, time and cost. 

(Refer to patient video testimonials)

These results have warranted a first REVIVER clinical trial for patients with Parkinson's disease and Atypical Parkinson's at Australia's Monash University and Alfred Hospital, funded by the Federal Government and CSIRO (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation).

The Story

Australian Tongan inventor Mr Geoffrey Redmond first noticed that his mother at the age of 86, was having great difficulty with her short-term memory and being able to walk without pain. He considered exercise as the obvious solution.

The problem being: “How do you exercise a person that cannot move without pain?” 

Solution: “Have a machine to do the moving for them. Thereby allowing them to receive the miraculous benefits of exercise.”

Since first using her REVIVER and now at the age of 91,

Mrs Redmond maintains her 3 to 4-minute daily exercise routine on the device. She continues to improve her memory and ability to walk distance without pain, while maintaining her happy disposition.

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Geoffrey and his Mum - 2021

Mrs Redmond at 91 years of age

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ISODYNAMICS REVIVER

Neuromuscular Rehabilitation Clinic

Sydney Australia

REVIVER Sea Green.jpg

Feel Stronger Live Longer

Isodynamics REVIVER Gets Genuine Results
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REVIVER is a unique device, in its potential to promote recoveries in patients that are often well beyond those previously achieved with other exercise devices and therapies.

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Isodynamics REVIVER Clinic

Sydney Australia

The REVIVER is a device that exercises, strengthens, tones and conditions using the body's reflex balancing system and gravity.

 

It achieves this for a wide range of people across various ages, ability and disability with minimum time and effort in a safe, user-friendly manner whilst delivering positive results.

 

This newly discovered solution has been achieved by the use of the REVIVER's slow, radial wave-like motion and gravity, acting on the body's entire reflex balancing system. 

REVIVER devices are a unique innovative solution for clients that need the benefits of exercise to improve strength, balance and mobility, even if the patient is only capable of laying, sitting or standing, due to pain or disability.

 

These devices enable exercise benefits to occur without the normal stress or impact associated with traditional exercise therapies.


REVIVER exercise benefits go well beyond current methods of exercise and the results speak for themselves. 

At present, REVIVER therapy is only available at the Isodynamics Neuromuscular Rehabilitation Clinic in Sydney Australia. Our clinic caters for a wide range of neuromuscular patients including those with Parkinson's Disease.  

 

Bookings for consultation and therapy sessions are billed in half-hour increments at industry rates.
The unique REVIVER therapy sessions are conducted by university-qualified Exercise Physiologists (EP's), experienced in catering for individual patient needs.


All our EPs are accredited members of Exercise & Sports Science Australia (ESSA).

Contact the REVIVER Clinic today on +612 9524 2188 to find out more and book your unique REVIVER consultation and therapy experience.  

Health Funds

 

Fee assistance can be obtained from a range of Private Health Insurance providers depending on your specific cover and policy. Isodynamics Corporation Pty Ltd is also a registered NDIS (National Disability Insurance Scheme) provider for Allied Health Services who employ ​fully-qualified ESSA-certified Exercise Physiologists. Medicare and the Department of Veteran's Affairs also provide a level of fee assistance.

 

Call us on (02) 9524 2188 for more information.

Isodynamics Clinic Enquiries
Phone: 02 9524 2188
Email: enquiries@isodynamics.com.au

Address: Unit 4/59 Cawarra Road, Caringbah NSW 2229 Australia
 

Operating Hours
Monday - Friday 
9:00am - 5:00pm

Alternate times by appointment

REVIVER Sales Enquiries
Email: Geoffrey Redmond  geoffrey@isodynamics.com.au

Email: Geoff McKinnon  geoffm@isodynamics.com.au

Patient Testimonials

PARKINSONS: Alicia’s mum, Chrissy, has Parkinson’s disease. After hearing about REVIVER, she boarded a plane from her home in London and flew to Sydney to ensure her mother received the unique REVIVER therapy. Alicia talks of the remarkable changes she has observed in her mother.

STROKE: Tara suffered from a stroke at a young age. The video shows her surprise and emotional response to the outcome of just one session on REVIVER. Helping this beautiful young woman feel her arm and find her feet again to some degree is a great example of why we all believe in the power of exercise on REVIVER. 

AGE: Bill has been attending the clinic since July 2020 and turned 96 years young in that October. Being visually impaired, REVIVER therapy has helped Bill boost his confidence in walking by improving his balance and general mobility.

PARKINSON'S: Darrel, a Parkinson's patient and veteran, has been attending Isodynamics for five weeks and can now walk confidently without his walker! 

PARKINSON'S: Watch Angela on the left video as she starts her first half-hour therapy. The video on the right was filmed at the start of her 6th half-hour treatment. Look at the progress. She continues to further improve in terms of strength, balance and mobility.

PARKINSON'S: Len has made amazing progress with the help of the REVIVER machines! REVIVER allowed Len to unlock the benefits of full-body exercise that would be impossible for him to do any other way. 

PAIN: Lorene has had leukaemia debilitating her body with pain and lack of strength from a young age. This is the result after just 4 sessions on REVIVER. 

PARKINSON'S: This is John in 2018. He's even stronger and more agile now in 2021. He was diagnosed with Parkinson's Disease a couple of years prior. He continues to visit the REVIVER clinic a couple of times a week to maintain his ability. 

SHOULDER PAIN: Karen suffered shoulder pain for 8 long years from 2009 - 2017. This is her 2nd 6-minute session on REVIVER. The results are amazing and Karen was able to unlock the benefit of full-body exercise like never before with REVIVER. 

PARKINSON'S: Terry explains some of the functions his been able to get back in approximately 3 to 4 hours of using REVIVER - including his ability and improvements to balance, talk, and walk backwards. Terry has been able to unlock the benefit of full-body exercise with REVIVER for amazing results.

ARTHRITIS: Watch Jackie as she describes how her arthritic hand pain disappeared after her 2nd eight-minute session on REVIVER. 

Two mums talk about the Isodynamics REVIVER clinic and the improvement in their children’s disabilities.

Nicole's first session with Isodynamics REVIVER,

a treatment finally relieving her from Cerebral Palsy. 

Here is an insight to Nicole's current progress, and how the REVIVER has improved her physical and mental wellbeing. Nicole notices that she is restoring both control and strength in her ability to move, once again for the first time in many years.

Nicole demonstrates her newfound stability after her session with the REVIVER. She provides her views on how she has improved overall after just a few sessions.

POST-OP PAIN: 67-year old Geoffrey had suffered from knee pain for a full two years post an operation. That's two years he will never get back. Take a look after his first 6-minutes on REVIVER in his first visit.

PARKINSON'S: Kevin came from New Zealand for 4 days of REVIVER therapy. On the left is his first day of 1-hour sessions. On the right is his fourth day of 1-hour treatments. Check the difference - in a few days - thanks to unlocking the benefits of full-body exercise with REVIVER. 

BACK PAIN: Pat was finding it increasingly painful to walk with her back pain. Listen to how just one session on the REVIVER helped Pat move again without pain. 

BRAIN HYPOXIA: Ben’s mother, Anne talk about Ben’s progress with memory, balance, and his new ability to walk up and down the stairs after only 6x 30-minute sessions on REVIVER.

Sally has not been able to walk without assistance for 2 years, due to her Cerebral Palsy. Look her now, what a remarkable result.

This is Sally walking for the first time in 2 years! She has the stamina, strength and control just as her younger self.

Mark elaborates on his astonishment, after using the REVIVER to relieve his Stroke symptoms. He rediscovers his ability to control his right arm, while in mid-session of his REVIVER treatment.  

HEALTH & FITNESS: Former professional rugby league great and coach to the victorious Canterbury Bulldogs, Melbourne Storm, and Australian Kangaroo's in the World Cup, Chris Anderson is 'filthy' we didn't get the REVIVER to him sooner. He notes it's the easy way to stay fit and strong. 

Geoffrey's Testimonial

At 60, I was overweight with a number of health issues such as gout and joint pain, which limited my ability to be active and exercise. I use the manual ADAM REVIVER at home, once or twice a week for around 6 mins at a time.​


Now at the age of 63, I am doing a lot of the things that I used to do at a much younger age, such as boxing and sprinting. REVIVER is proving that balance is a fundamental foundation of exercise and its use provides benefits that go well beyond current methods of exercise, in activating areas of the body that may have become dormant.

"I believe the benefit of REVIVER is its ability to naturally produce strength and healing signals that consistently and uniformly radiate throughout the body - producing remarkable results for health and wellbeing." 

Geoffrey Redmond

Contact Us

Complete the form and one of our consultants will contact you to discuss your needs.

Client using Isodynamics REVIVER

Our Mission

Our mission is to give people relief from pain and disability, by providing the miraculous benefits of exercise in its simplest and  user-friendly form.


One of the world's great philanthropists has organised for the REVIVER to be prepared for mass production, through global manufacturing and supply companies Asteelflash and Future Electronics, allowing REVIVER to be affordable and accessible throughout the world.

 

First REVIVER production models for home and commercial use may be available for sale by 2022. This supports our overall objective to have REVIVER in every home as a preventative measure against disease.

Pre-Order and Distribution enquiries can be made by emailing Isodynamics REVIVER Corporation Pty Ltd.

geoffrey@isodynamics.com.au 
enquiries@isodynamics.com.au

Scientific Principles of REVIVER

Dr Ben Sinclair
Research Fellow, Department of Neuroscience, Monash University

Dr Benjamin Sinclair attained his PhD at the University of Queensland and has worked as a lecturer in MRI physics at University of Queensland and as a Research Fellow at the University of Melbourne. He is now a Research Fellow in the Department of Neuroscience at Monash University in Melbourne Australia.

His major area of study and research is in the field of brain imaging. Dr Sinclair has published papers on a range of topics including supernova cosmology, space plasma physics, the heritability of brain networks and effects of physical exercise interventions on brain atrophy in elderly people.

Introduction

Thus far, self-reports by users of the REVIVER exercise machine and simple observations by Isodynamics Centre staff indicate a myriad of benefits. A number of users demonstrate immediate and marked improvements in walking and posture, which persists through regular use. Regular use also produces visually evident increases in muscle tone, and some users report improvements in memory and reduction in pain symptoms from pre-existing ailments. Rapid improvements in some users are best explained in terms of neurological, rather than muscular phenomena. The closest precedent in scientific literature is the emerging field of neuromodulation.

In what follows, the probable scientific basis of the observed improvements is explored. The physical benefits obtained from the use of the REVIVER derive from improvements in both muscular and neural systems. These improvements can be explained by a number of principles; neuroplasticity, neuromodulation, assisted motion, recruitment of full-body automatic/reflex actions and utilisation of gravity.

1 Muscular Effect

Muscular atrophy is the reduction in muscle mass, caused primarily by lack of physical activity. Use of the REVIVER has the ability to reverse this effect considering the following principles.
 
1.1 Assisted Motion
For elderly people or people with a physical impediment, a large range of natural motions and muscular activation patterns will not be available to them. Assisted motion is a prominent technique used in neuromuscular rehabilitation whereby some mechanism is used to help the person perform a motion that they would otherwise be unable to perform. For example, robotics are used in the therapy of chronic stroke patients to aide in limb motor control and has been shown to increase motor control (Kwakkel et al., 2008; Prange et al., 2006). In some studies, this improvement is greater than conventional movement therapies (Lum et al., 2002).
The REVIVER machine fully supports the participant whilst moving them through a range of body positions. These body positions engage strongly and simultaneously a set of core and peripheral muscles required to keep the body upright. This engagement will strengthen those muscles and strengthen the neural pathways from the brain to those muscles, which may have weakened through non-use.
1.2 Automatic Responses
There are some cases in neurology where a specific function may be impaired, but if that function is part of a distinct or more complex process, then the impaired function can nevertheless be recruited. For example, some patients in advanced stages of Alzheimer’s disease may have impaired speech and communication, but can nevertheless sing along to familiar songs, and experience temporary improvements in communication (anecdotal) and reduction in agitation and anxiety (Gerdner, 2005) subsequent to music therapy. The self-righting reflex in response to falling is an automatic reaction requiring minimal conscious decisions or actions.
The REVIVER activates this response by placing the participant on positions at the edge of, and beyond their balance. This strong survival response appears to be recruiting motor patterns and muscles which had become weak through lack of use and reduced signalling, and which are no longer activated through the participant's other physical activities or daily living.

1.3. Gravitational Effects
All-natural human movements evolved within the constraints of gravity and counteracting the force of gravity is a major component of these movements. The most striking example of the necessity of gravity in human physical function is the dramatic wastage of muscle tissue in astronauts exposed to periods of zero gravity. 
 
One of the major design principles of the REVIVER is to maximise the effects of gravity and to maximise the participants' counter-reaction to gravity. In an upright position, as utilised in most physical activities and sports, minimal force is required to counteract gravity as the centre of gravity is directly above their support base. In a tilted position, the participant has to counteract torques (rotational forces), due to their centre of gravity being displaced from their support base. Counteracting these torques requires substantial muscular activation, yet due to the support of the machine, this muscular activation is possible for most participants, even those with substantial movement impairment.

2 Neurological Effects

All motion other than simple reflexes originates in the brain. The brain and the bodywork as a single integrated system, and many physical impairments have origins in the brain. In fact, improvement in any movement or action, from hitting a tennis ball to walking up the stairs results from refining and strengthening of the neural circuits which compute and execute these actions. The strengthening of these circuits comes about by repetition and adaptation in response to external feedback.
2.1 Neuromodulation
The drastic improvements observed after relatively short periods of use on the REVIVER exercise machine are most likely due to a process of neuromodulation. Neuromodulation is the alteration of nerve activity through targeted delivery of a stimulus, such as electrical stimulation or chemical agents, to specific neurological sites in the body. In the context of therapy, neuromodulation is primarily used as a means of inducing neuroplasticity, which is described in the following section. Neural activation is crucial for neuroplasticity to occur. For example, stem cells can replace damaged oligodendrocytes and re-insulate axons, but will only do so if the neuron is active, which is often not the case for damaged or disused tissue.
Neuromodulation for therapeutic purposes artificially activates natural intact pathways, and synchronises healthy neural tissue, leading to stronger connections and healthier neurons within these pathways (Kuo et al., 2014; Ridding and Ziemann, 2010). Neuromodulation can also enforce reconnection in malfunctioning tissue. Neuromodulation has been used effectively for Parkinson’s Disease patients, whereby an implantable pulse generator is implanted in areas identified via Magnetic Resonance Imaging as defective.
This therapy generally reduces motor symptoms and most patients can reduce medication (Benabid et al., 2009). Neuromodulation has also been used effectively for Epilepsy patients, where the vagus nerve is stimulated, and 30-50% of patients experience a reduction in seizure frequency and severity (Ben-Menachem, 2002). These therapies are quite invasive and require the implantation of a device.
Less invasive methods involve the application of a miniature electrode array to the tongue, a technique developed by the Neurorehabilitation group at the University of Wisconsin. This group applies the stimulation to the tongue at the same time as the patient carries out a movement task (Cranial Nerve, Non-Invasive Neuromodulation; CN-NINM). This combination is thought to be highly efficient at stimulating neuroplasticity (Danilov et al., 2007; Wildenberg et al., 2010). This technique yields large and rapid improvements in walking capabilities of traumatic brain injury and multiple sclerosis patients. We have documented equally large and rapid improvements in low-mobility elderly participants and in one case a cerebral palsy patient.
The REVIVER uses a very similar principle to CN-NINM, but is even less invasive. The stimulus is the periodic perturbation of the vestibular system via circular motion at a tilted angle. Such a stimulation does not occur in day-to-day life. Although the input stimulus is not electrical, the stimulus (motion) will generate an electrical impulse in the vestibulocochlear (ear) nerve in much the same way as the microelectrode array in CN-NINM generated an electrical impulse in the hypoglossal (tongue) nerve. The combination of a targeted stimulus (the circular motion) with physical activity (the contracting and relaxing of muscles required to maintain equilibrium), is likely to enhance neuroplasticity in damaged or disused motor and balancing circuits. In fact, given the strong neural interconnections between balancing and motor systems, we hypothesise that the vestibular system is a particularly appropriate target for neuromodulation.

2.2 Neuroplasticity

The brain has an innate ability to heal itself, and to compensate for lost function by strengthening existing pathways, or recruiting new pathways should an existing pathway be irrevocably damaged. There are a large number of mechanisms contributing to this ability, which are collectively termed neuroplasticity, and are described below.
2.2.1 Structural plasticity
  • Neurons themselves can change structurally.
  • Requires neighbouring neurons to fire in synchrony.
  • Receiving (postsynaptic) neuron can increase the length and number of dendrites (the branches of the neuron which pick up incoming signals).
  • Transmitting neuron can create more axonal branches and terminals.
2.2.2 Synaptic plasticity
  • When a neuron is repeatedly active.
  • The amount of neurotransmitter released for each impulse (action potential) increases.
  • The number of receptors on the receiving neuron can also increase.

2.2.3 Myelination
  • Axon is covered in myelin.
  • Speed of electric signal dependent on the amount of myelin.
  • Use of a pathway increases the amount of myelin.

2.2.4 Neurogenesis
  • Thousands of new neurons are produced each day from stem cells.
  • In the event of injury, stem cells migrate from their origin in the brain to damaged areas.
  • It is not yet known whether and under what conditions these stem cells can repair damaged tissues.
We cannot say which of the above mechanisms are specifically targeted by the REVIVER machine, but any alteration to brain function will be a result of one or multiple of the above mechanisms.
2.3 Exercise Effects on Brain Health
Some of the brain benefits from the use of the REVIVER can be attributed simply to the more general benefits of any exercise to the brain. Humans evolved as a nomadic specie, constantly on the move, and today’s sedentary lifestyle does not provide the brain with the activity and nourishment needed for optimal performance.
Physical activity is extremely beneficial for brain health via a number of mechanisms. Exercise increases the creation of new brain cells (neurogenesis), increases the production of neutrophic factors, which support the growth and survival of neurons and exercise increases blood flow to the brain (Hillman et al., 2008).
 
The primary cell in the brain is the neuron. Neurons consist of a cell body which receives signals and performs calculations, and axons, which relay signals to other neurons. Grey matter is the term used to refer to the cell bodies of neurons. Exercise increases the volume of grey matter in the hippocampus, the area of the brain responsible for memory formation, and the prefrontal cortex, involved in working memory, attentional control, decision making and behavioural inhibition.
 
White matter is the term used to refer to the axons of the neurons, and more specifically, the myelin which insulates the axons and improves conduction of electrical signals. Exercise improves the structural integrity of the white matter tracts in the brain, and thus improves communication between different regions of the brain (Sexton et al., 2016). 
 
These positive effects of exercise on brain anatomy and physiology are accompanied by improvements in cognition, in particular executive function (Hillman et al., 2008; Hotting and Roder, 2013), which includes functions such as attentional control, planning and working memory. It should be noted that the vast majority of studies looking at the effect of exercise on brain health consider aerobic exercise. The effects of resistance training are much less well documented. However, resistance exercise has been seen to improve executive cognitive function (Liu-Ambrose et al., 2012; Nagamatsu et al., 2012).
Since the REVIVER allows people to perform movement they may otherwise be unable to perform, then a large part of the benefit of the REVIVER derives from allowing people to tap into these benefits of exercise which were previously unavailable to them. Furthermore, the improvements in muscle tone and balance acquired from using the REVIVER can allow elderly people to subsequently engage in more demanding activities, and thus further the neurological benefits of exercise.
 
2.4 The Motor System
The neural apparatus for executing movements are distributed throughout the brain. The primary motor cortex sends signals to the muscles via motor neurons telling them to contract. If the strength of this signal reduces, the efficacy of contraction reduces. But before this signal is sent to the muscles, a complex system of planning, feedback and modulation take place in the brain.
The premotor areas plan sequences of movements and integrate movements with sensory information, the cerebellum calibrates the timing and precision of movements, the basal ganglia modulate and smooth movements.
Damage to any of these areas or the connections between them will result in suboptimal movement. Additionally, non-use of these areas and circuits, either through physical impairment or changes in lifestyle will weaken the connections and excitability between the involved brain regions (Facchini et al., 2002; Kaneko et al., 2003). Conversely, the motor system displays a high degree of plasticity and can be strengthened through motor training (Adkins et al., 2006; Boroojerdi et al., 2001). 

3. Summary

In summary, early observations indicate that the REVIVER is extremely promising as an exercise machine and even as a therapeutic tool.

 

Objective measurements and follow-ups will be needed to validate its efficacy and determine in which conditions it is most effective. These trials are currently in the planning stages. At this point, we can say with very little speculation that the REVIVER machine is particularly adept as a tool for elderly users with reduced function, as the machine assists them to perform motions beyond their current physical capabilities, and activates muscles which are rarely used in day to day activities and are thus subject to atrophy.

 

Rapid improvements in some users are best explained in terms of neurological, rather than muscular phenomena. The closest precedent in scientific literature is the emerging field of neuromodulation. 
The REVIVER inputs a strong targeted and novel stimulus simultaneously to the user being engaged in some task, which is a hallmark of a number of more high tech neuromodulation strategies. This combination is thought to optimally stimulate neuroplasticity and strengthen the users' natural neural systems, which could explain the rapid improvements in walking and posture in some users.

References

Adkins, D.L., Boychuk, J., Remple, M.S., Kleim, J.A., 2006. Motor training induces experience specific patterns of plasticity across motor cortex and spinal cord. J Appl Physiol (1985) 101(6), 1776-1782. Ben-Menachem, E., 2002. Vagus-nerve stimulation for the treatment of epilepsy. Lancet Neurol1(8), 477-482. Benabid, A.L., Chabardes, S., Mitrofanis, J., Pollak, P., 2009. Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus for the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Lancet Neurol 8(1), 67-81.
Boroojerdi, B., Ziemann, U., Chen, R., Butefisch, C.M., Cohen, L.G., 2001. Mechanisms underlying human motor system plasticity. Muscle Nerve 24(5), 602-613. Danilov, Y.P., Tyler, M.E., Skinner, K.L., Hogle, R.A., Bach-y-Rita, P., 2007. Efficacy of electrotactile vestibular substitution in patients with peripheral and central vestibular loss. J
Vestib Res 17(2-3), 119-130. Facchini, S., Romani, M., Tinazzi, M., Aglioti, S.M., 2002. Time-related changes of excitability of the human motor system contingent upon immobilisation of the ring and little fingers. Clin Neurophysiol 113(3), 367-375. Gerdner, L.A., 2005. Use of individualized music by trained staff and family: translating research into practice. J Gerontol Nurs 31(6), 22-30; quiz 55-26. Hillman, C.H., Erickson, K.I., Kramer, A.F., 2008. Be smart, exercise your heart: exercise effects on brain and cognition. Nat Rev Neurosci 9(1), 58-65. Hotting, K., Roder, B., 2013. Beneficial effects of physical exercise on neuroplasticity and cognition. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 37(9 Pt B), 2243-2257. Kaneko, F., Murakami, T., Onari, K., Kurumadani, H., Kawaguchi, K., 2003. Decreased cortical excitability during motor imagery after disuse of an upper limb in humans. Clin Neurophysiol 114(12), 2397-2403. Kuo, M.F., Paulus, W., Nitsche, M.A., 2014. Therapeutic effects of non-invasive brain stimulation with direct currents (tDCS) in neuropsychiatric diseases. Neuroimage 85 Pt 3, 948-960. Kwakkel, G., Kollen, B.J., Krebs, H.I., 2008. Effects of robot-assisted therapy on upper limb recovery after stroke: a systematic review. Neurorehabil Neural Repair 22(2), 111-121. Liu-Ambrose, T., Nagamatsu, L.S., Voss, M.W., Khan, K.M., Handy, T.C., 2012. Resistance training and functional plasticity of the aging brain: a 12-month randomized controlled trial. Neurobiol Aging 33(8), 1690-1698. Lum, P.S., Burgar, C.G., Shor, P.C., Majmundar, M., Van der Loos, M., 2002. Robot-assisted movement training compared with conventional therapy techniques for the rehabilitation of upper-limb motor function after stroke. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 83(7), 952-959. Nagamatsu, L.S., Handy, T.C., Hsu, C.L., Voss, M., Liu-Ambrose, T., 2012. Resistance training promotes cognitive and functional brain plasticity in seniors with probable mild cognitive impairment. Arch Intern Med 172(8), 666-668. Prange, G.B., Jannink, M.J., Groothuis-Oudshoorn, C.G., Hermens, H.J., Ijzerman, M.J., 2006. Systematic review of the effect of robot-aided therapy on recovery of the hemiparetic arm after stroke. J Rehabil Res Dev 43(2), 171-184. Ridding, M.C., Ziemann, U., 2010. Determinants of the induction of cortical plasticity by non-invasive brain stimulation in healthy subjects. J Physiol 588(Pt 13), 2291-2304. Sexton, C.E., Betts, J.F., Demnitz, N., Dawes, H., Ebmeier, K.P., Johansen-Berg, H., 2016. A systematic review of MRI studies examining the relationship between physical fitness and activity and the white matter of the ageing brain. Neuroimage 131, 81-90. Wildenberg, J.C., Tyler, M.E., Danilov, Y.P., Kaczmarek, K.A., Meyerand, M.E., 2010. Sustained cortical and subcortical neuromodulation induced by electrical tongue stimulation.
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